Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine remain the standard of care as the initial treatment of acute pericarditis. Corticosteroids and traditional immunosuppressive medications are often added if patients develop recurrent symptoms and remain medically refractory.
There has been growing interest in the use of interleukin-1 receptor antagonists (IL-1RAs) in managing pericarditis, especially, in medically refractory cases. Anakinra-Treatment for Recurrent Idiopathic Pericarditis is a recent pilot trial showing a benefit of using the IL-1RA, anakinra, in recurrent pericarditis.
Publications remain limited and more outcomes trials are needed. This review focuses on the mechanism of action, clinical utility, current, and future studies that investigate the role of IL-1RAs in the management of recurrent pericarditis.
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